Julius Court

With the new Century over a year old, technology has now played critical yet very

different roles in bringing two of the world’s leaders to power. Among others things,

Florida will remembered for technological hitches that plagued the ballot counting and

possibly pushed the outcome of the U.S. election in favor of George W. Bush.

On the other hand, a new information and communications technology (ICT) – the mobile

phone – was the symbol of the People Power II revolution in the Philippines. Arguably,

the most lasting image of Ms Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s new Presidency was when, on

being asked in a news conference whether a Lt. Gen. Espinosa was planning a coup, she

called him up on her mobile phone. In moment of high drama she asked him directly if

this was the case and after a brief conversation reported it wasn’t.

But it was the use of cellphones for “texting” rather than calls that was the most

intriguing part of People Power II and was also the key to its success. The lack of

attention to the role of technology is surprising. People Power II was arguably the

world’s first “E-revolution” – a change of government brought about by new forms of


“Texting” allowed information on former President Estrada’s corruption to be shared

widely. It helped facilitate the protests at the EDSA shrine at a speed that was startling – it

took only 88 hours after the collapse of impeachment to remove Estrada. The use of

mobile phones was why the mobilization (or perhaps “mobile-ization”) was so large and

so rapid and thus so decisive. Estrada himself blamed his ouster on the “text messaging


Mobile phone technology was not just critical in the days preceding People Power II; it

had been important over a number of months. In Spring last year, Estrada ordered key

government agencies to do something about alleged text-messages abusing him. The

same week, texters started passing around messages using an exclamation mark as a

symbol to call for an end to the Estrada government’s corruption, cronyism and


This exact form of revolution could probably only have happened in the Philippines.

Manila is the texting capital of the world. Philippines, a relatively poor country, has 4.5

million mobile phones. Texting is much cheaper than making phone calls, making it so

popular in a country like the Philippines. Filipinos can often text with either – and

sometimes even both – hands. They also text while driving – no mean feat on Manila’s

dangerous streets.

Normally used for brief and frivolous communications, the public outrage at the

breakdown of the impeachment, the degree of ownership of mobile phones and the

networking potential of text messages. […]


Julius Court is a Programme Officer at the United Nations University and co-director of the World Governance Survey project. These are his personal views.



The Positive Effect of K-12 Curriculum

There are many positive effects of inclusions where both the students with special needs along with the other students in the classroom both benefit. Research has shown positive effects for children with disabilities in areas such as reading individualized education program (IEP) goal, improving communication and social skills, increasing positive peer interactions, many educational outcomes, and post school adjustments. Positive effects on children without disabilities include the development of positive attitudes and perceptions of persons with disabilities and the enhancement of social status with nondisabled peers.
Several studies have been done on the effects of inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms. A study on inclusion compared integrated and segregated (special education only) preschool students. The study determined that children in the integrated sites progressed in social skills development while the segregated children actually regressed.
Another study shows the effect on inclusion in grades 2 to 5. The study determined that students with specific learning disabilities made some academic and affective gains at a pace comparable to that of normal achieving students. Specific learning disabilities students also showed an improvement in self-esteem and in some cases improved motivation.